Homocysteine is an amino acid that functions as an intermediate in methionine metabolism. It can rise in response to nutritional deficiencies of B12, folate, B6, or betaine. High levels of homocysteine have been linked to damaged endothelium, increased platelet aggregation, and the formation of atherosclerotic lesions.
Lipoprotein(a) or Lp(a) is a marker strongly influenced by heredity. It has been cited for its causative role in atherothrombogenesis and its strong association with both coronary and peripheral cardiac events. Lp(a) promotes the deposit of fatty wastes and other debris in atherosclerotic lesions.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important independent marker for inflammation. High levels reflect overactivity of inflammatory cytokines linked to coagulation and vascular endothelium damage. Evidence suggests that previous infection with pathogens such as Chlamydia pneumoniae or Helicobacter pylori may act as an initiating trigger for this chronic inflammation. Elevated CRP has also been linked to a poorer long-term prognosis in individuals with a recent history of a cardiac event.
Fibrinogen plays a key role in arterial occlusion by promoting thrombus formation, endothelial injury and hyperviscosity.
Triglycerides may become elevated by diets containing excess amounts of saturated fats or carbohydrates. These elevations are implicated in the progression of both coronary and peripheral atherosclerosis.
Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and their ratios assess specific dynamics of lipid metabolism and their potential impact on CVD
A broad range of traditional and newer markers for cardiovascular disease are being measured
- hsC-reactive protein
- Apolipoprotein B
- Apolipoprotein A-1
- Apo B/Apo A-1
- LDL cholesterol
- Lipoprotein (a)
- Total cholesterol
- Total cholesterol/HDL
- Cardiovascular index
- Glycosolated haemoglobin
Age range this test is suitable for
Suitable for ages 18 +. Not suitable for children below 18 years old.
Type of test
Blood test that requires a blood sample and needs to be centrifuged.
You will need to arrange for a blood sample to be collected by a nurse at your G.P. service or at a private clinic or hospital. Any fee for this service is not included in with the test fee.
You will need to send your sample back to the lab via a next day postal service – If you are in the UK, Royal mail offer a suitable next day service. If you are outside of the UK then please check with your postal service for options. The cost of the test does not cover the return postage.
Please note that samples should only be posted on Monday – Thursday so that they do not arrive over the weekend when the lab is closed.
A courier returns option is offered by the lab and details will be included in with your test kit. This is an optional service and the cost is not included in with the test fee. Details about payment, should you wish to take up this offer, are included with the courier details.
Before taking the test
An overnight fast of 12 hours – water only. Some medication such as statins, aspirin and warfarin may influence the results although testing whilst on medication or therapy can be done to monitor effectiveness.
Do not discontinue with any medication unless supervised by your doctor.
All sample reports are for representational and educational purposes only. Biomarkers, references ranges, results, and all other data may differ from actual reports. All data included in no way represents an actual patient. Any comparisons of results to actual patients, is completely incidental.