Nearly 50% of all heart attack victims have normal levels of typical markers for CVD, including total cholesterol. The CV Health Profile assists physicians in identifying nearly 85% of individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease.
LDL-Particle Number (LDL-P) includes small and large LDL particles, and is independent of the cholesterol concentration within the particles. An individual with low/normal LDL-C concentration, but high LDL-P, is still at high-risk for plaque build-up. Increased LDL-P is associated with increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis, angina, myocardial infarction and future coronary events.
HDL-Particle Number (HDL-P) indicates increased risk of coronary events for individuals with a low HDL-P number, and is independent of major lipid and non-lipid CVD risk factors. HDL-P is an important secondary risk factor, as it strongly relates to atherosclerosis in those individuals with optimal levels of LDL-P. Increasing HDL-C without increasing HDL-P offers little clinical benefit.
LDL-Size is highly associated with triglycerides and insulin resistance. Individuals with a preponderance of LDL particles of smaller size are at increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and increased CAD severity.
Lipoprotein(a) or Lp(a) is a marker strongly influenced by heredity. It has been cited for its causative role in atherothrombogenesis and its strong association with both coronary and peripheral cardiac events. Lp(a) promotes the deposit of fatty wastes and other debris in atherosclerotic lesions.
hs C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an important independent marker for inflammation. High levels reflect over-activity of inflammatory cytokines linked to coagulation and vascular endothelium damage. Elevated hs-CRP has also been linked to a poor long-term prognosis in individuals with a recent history of a cardiac event.
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase (Lp-PLA2), aka PLAC, is an enzyme produced in the early stages of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Lp-PLA2 promotes inflammation and plaque instability, and is a marker specific for vascular inflammation – i.e. it is not affected by common systemic infections or inflammation. Lp-PLA2 levels reflect atherosclerosis disease activity rather than plaque burden – a significant indicator, given that the majority of heart attacks and sudden coronary deaths are attributable to plaque rupture at sites of only moderate stenosis.
Homocysteine is an amino acid that functions as an intermediate in methionine metabolism. Homocysteine rises with nutritional deficiencies of B12, folate, B6, or riboflavin. High levels of homocysteine are linked to damaged endothelium, increased platelet aggregation, the formation of atherosclerosis, and increased risk of CVD.
Fibrinogen contributes to arterial occlusion by supporting formation of thrombus, causing injury to endothelial tissue and hyperviscosity.
Insulin Resistance Score is calculated based upon advanced lipid measures by NMR Spectroscopy, evaluating the particle number and size of LDL, HDL, and VLDL sub-fractionation.
What is being measured
- LDL – cholesterol
- HDL – cholesterol
- Total cholesterol
- LDL – P
- HDL – P
- LDL – Size
- Lipoprotein (a)
- hs C-reactive Protein
- Insulin Resistance Score
Age range this test is suitable for
Suitable for ages 18 +. Not suitable for children below 18 years old.
Type of test
Blood test that requires a blood sample and needs to be centrifuged.
You will need to arrange for a blood sample to be collected by a nurse at your G.P. service or at a private clinic or hospital. Any fee for this service is not included in with the test fee.
You will need to send your sample back to the lab via a next day postal service – If you are in the UK, Royal mail offer a suitable next day service. If you are outside of the UK then please check with your postal service for options. The cost of the test does not cover the return postage.
Please note that samples should only be posted on Monday – Thursday so that they do not arrive over the weekend when the lab is closed.
A courier returns option is offered by the lab and details will be included in with your test kit. This is an optional service and the cost is not included in with the test fee. Details about payment, should you wish to take up this offer, are included with the courier details.
Before taking the test
An overnight fast of 12 hours – water only. Some medication such as statins, aspirin and warfarin may influence the results although testing whilst on medication or therapy can be done to monitor effectiveness.
Do not discontinue with any medication unless supervised by your doctor.
All sample reports are for representational and educational purposes only. Biomarkers, references ranges, results, and all other data may differ from actual reports. All data included in no way represents an actual patient. Any comparisons of results to actual patients, is completely incidental.