Comparison Table

Gastro Intestinal (GI) Tests - This comprehensive table is designed to help you determine the best GI test for you.
Test Name Digestive Stool Test 1 Comprehensive GI Effects Digestive Stool Test 2 Comprehensive GI-MAP Digestive Stool Test 3 Comprehensive GI 360 Digestive Stool Test GI Effects Gut Microbiome Digestive Stool Test GI Effects Gut Pathogens Candida, Yeast Culture and Sensitivity MOAT Microbial Organic Acids Test Macroscopic Examination for Worms Helicobacter Pylori Stool + Virulence Factors & Sensitivities SIBO Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth Test SIBO Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth Breath Test - Glucose Leaky Gut - AIBA Advanced Intestinal Barrier Assessment Cyrex Array 2 Leaky Gut Calprotectin Coeliac
Type of test This part of the table shows what kind of sample is needed for the test Stool Stool Stool Stool Stool Stool Urine Stool Stool Breath Breath Blood Blood Stool Blood
Smart Nutrition Code Our unique ordering code G2200 NGIMAP RDD003 G2205 G2207 RCM114 RCMI32 RCMI24 NDSHPSA VIVASIBOLact VIVAGluc RPD005 RCA2 INVECOGI003 G1018
Digestion & Absorption This part of the test looks into your digestive capacity. You can see which tests check for protein, carbohydrate and fat digestion and absorption along with pancreatic function.
Pancreatic Elastase / Elastase Your pancreas is plays an important part in the digestion of protein, fats and carbohydrates. Imbalances of pancreatic elastase / elastase can also be seen oin cases of other pancreatic issues that may need further investigation. The NHS use this marker in their testing and your Dr. Should easily understand these results.
Products of Protein Breakdown (Total*) (Valerate, Isobutyrate, Isovalerate) These markers help to protein digestion.
Putrefactive SCFAs Valerate, isovalerate and isobutyrate constitute the putrefactive short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Elevated levels result from bacterial fermentation of undigested protein. Elevated levels suggest low stomach acid, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and/or protein malabsorption
Chymotrypsin Chymotrypsin is a protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas.It is useful inmonitoring patients who have moderate to severe pancreatic dysfunction.
Meat fibers Meat fibers are undigested food particles that are sometimes seen microscopically or macroscopically. They may indicate maldigestion and/ or malabsorption
Vegetable fibers Vegetable are undigested food particles that are sometimes seen microscopically or macroscopically. They may indicate maldigestion and/ or malabsorption
Fecal Fat (Total) / Steatocrit This marker is important to help assess fat digestion and absorption. Total fecal fats include the sum total of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and long chain fatty acids. These fats are predominately derived from the diet although an additional lipid content in the stool is derived from bile and from mucosal desquamation.
Carbohydrates The presence of reducing substances in stool specimens can indicate carbohydrate malabsorption.
Triglycerides Triglycerides represent the major component of dietary fat (on average 120g of a 125g daily load). As Fat digestion is completed by a number of steps being able to separate the diofferent fats in the stoll helps to work out where any incomplete fat digestion is occuring. Triglycerides may also be elevated with a rapid transit time, which impairs the breakdown and absorption of these lipids
Long-Chain Fatty Acids - LCFA's LCFAs are normally readily absorbed in a healthy gut mucosa. Elevated levels are suggestive of malabsorption, reduced pancreatic function or bile insufficiency. Increased LCFAs have also been noted after acute intestinal infections.
Cholesterol Fecal cholesterol is derived from the diet, bile, and from mucosal epithelial break- down. In a healthy gastrointestinal tract, about 40-60% of dietary cholesterol will be absorbed. Elevated levels are a reflection of mucosal malabsorption.
Phospholipids Phospholipids com from from three specific sources: bile (50%), diet (25%), and from the gut mucosal wall (desquamation)(25%). The major dietary- derived phospholipids include phos- phatidyl choline and phosphatidyl serine. In a healthy individual, nearly 85% of intestinal phospholipids are absorbed. Elevations levels could indicate an number of possibilities: malabsorption, inadequate bile salt resorption, or increased mucosal cell turnover.
Inflammation and Immunology This part of the test is looking for inflammation in the gut and immune markers
Calprotectin Well recognised by the NHS Calprotectin is released from the intestinal mucosa into the stool in intestinal inflammation and is a useful marker to help differentiate between IBS ( Irritable bowel syndrom) and IBD (Inflammatory bowel syndrome)
Eosinophil Protein X (EPX) EPX can dramatically increase only under intestinal inflammatory conditions. Causes could be such as IBD, Food Intolerance, Parasites and food related dermatitis.
Fecal secretory IgA Secretory IgA (sIgA) is recognized as a first line of defense in protecting the intestinal epithelium (gut lining) from some enteric pathogens and toxins.Althoug not a leaky gut test SigA can be used to assess gastrointestinal barrier function.
Anti-gliadin IgA Gliadin is a component of gluten, the protein found in wheat and other field grass grains such as barley, malt, and rye. The presence of fecal anti- gliadin antibodies can indicate an immune response (in the gut) to gluten in the diet. Fecal anti-gliadin antibodies do not necessarily correlate with blood levels.This is not a test for celiac disease.
Lysozyme Lysozyme* is an enzyme secreted at the site of inflammation in the GI tract and elevated levels have been identified in IBD patients.
Fecal Occult Blood - FIT Fecal occult blood is hidden blood in the stool that is not detectable through macroscopic evaluation. Such blood may arise from anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Occult blood may be the first and, in many cases, the only warning sign of colorectal disease, including colorectal cancer
Fecal Lactoferrin In the gastrointestinal tract, lactoferrin serves as a non-specific marker of inflamma- tion. Lactoferrin is elevated with enteric infection, active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and colorectal cancer.
Fecal Lysozyme
Gastrointestinal metabolic markers SCFA's are produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber and resistant starch. SCFAs function to:\n1. Maintain intestinal barrier function\n2. Provide fuel for colonocytes\n3. Regulate colonic absorption of water, electrolytes,\nand nutrients\n4. Salvage unabsorbed carbohydrates\n5. Support commensal bacteria\n6. Modulate anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial\nactivities. It is important to note that fecal SCFA results may not completely reflect how much of the SCFA was produced and absorbed in the intestine. A low fecal SCFA test result can be a consequence of low production or high absorption. A high fecal SCFA test result can be a consequence of high production or low absorption. Different bacteria produice higher or lower levels.
Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) (Total*) (Acetate, n-Butyrate, Propionate) These three SCFA's make up to 95% of the total SCFA foind in the gut.
n-Butyrate Concentration Butyrate is the primary fuel source for colonocytes. Inadequate levels are associated with disordered colonic health. This marker is meaure in micromol/g
n-Butyrate % Butyrate is the primary fuel source for colonocytes. Inadequate levels are associated with disordered colonic health. Measured as a % of the three main SCFA's
Acetate % Acetate is the most abundant SCFA in the colon and makes up more than half of the total SCFA. Measured as a % of the three main SCFA's
Propionate % Propionate is a minor energy source for the colonocytes ( cells of the gut) , though it has anti-inflammatory effects. Measured as a % of the three main SCFA's
Beta-glucuronidase Beta-glucuronidase is an enzyme which is produced by cell in the intestines and by some intestinal bacteria (particularly E. coli, but also Ruminococcus, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Clostridium). Beta-glucuronidase deconjugates (uncouples) molecules that are bound together to safely remove toxins such as carcinogens, oestrogen and drugs from the body allowing the reabsorption of these toxins.
pH \nFecal pH indicates the relative acidity or alkalinity of the colonic environment. The pH of the stool should not be confused with stomach pH, and therefore is not directly influenced by hydrochloric acid. Factors that have an impact on stool pH include fiber and food constituent intake,1-3 fermentive processes, bacterial populations, antibiotics, and stool transit time
Other Digestive Health Markers
Colour Stool color is primarily associated with diet and medication use, though it may indicate various GI health conditions.
Consistency Stool consistency may vary from hard to watery. This is self-reported by the patients upon submission of the stool sample. The technical ability to measure diagnostic biomarkers from stool may be influenced by consistency extremes
Mucus
Leaky Gut / Intestinal Permeability A normal healthy gut lining allows certain molecules to pass across into the bloodstream such as vitamins, minerals and digested foods. It also acts as a barrier to prevent entry of larger damaging molecules, foreign particles and bacteria.
Actomyosin IgA Actomysin is a protein found in the cells of the gut wall.\nIf this is positive it means that the cell wall has been damaged indicating a bigger problem than leaky gut alone.
Occludin/Zonulin IgG These are both proteins that work together a little like a shoe lace to manage gut permeability. A positive IgM will usually last a few weeks. If the problem isn’t managed then the body creates either IgA or IgG antibodies indicating a longer term issue.
Occludin/Zonulin IgA These are both proteins that work together a little like a shoe lace to manage gut permeability. A positive IgM will usually last a few weeks. If the problem isn’t managed then the body creates either IgA or IgG antibodies indicating a longer term issue.
Occludin/Zonulin IgM These are both proteins that work together a little like a shoe lace to manage gut permeabilit. IgM antibodies are created when there is a new issue
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) IgG These are proteins that can be found on the cell walls of bacteria. If they are present in the blood stream this indicates that they have passed through the gut wall = leaky gut.IgM antibodies are created when there is a new issue. A positive IgM will usually last a few weeks. If the problem isn’t managed then the body creates either IgA or IgG antibodies indicating a longer term issue.\n
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) IgA These are proteins that can be found on the cell walls of bacteria. If they are present in the blood stream this indicates that they have passed through the gut wall = leaky gut.IgM antibodies are created when there is a new issue. A positive IgM will usually last a few weeks. If the problem isn’t managed then the body creates either IgA or IgG antibodies indicating a longer term issue.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) IgM These are proteins that can be found on the cell walls of bacteria. If they are present in the blood stream this indicates that they have passed through the gut wall = leaky gut.IgM antibodies are created when there is a new issue. A positive IgM will usually last a few weeks. If the problem isn’t managed then the body creates either IgA or IgG antibodies indicating a longer term issue.
Zonulin Family Peptide - available as an add on Research by Fassano concluded that zonulin acted like a shoe lace to pull the cells of the intestines together. If it was found outside of the reference range it was concluded that it was associated with a leaky gut or intestinal permeability. A recent research paper published in Frontiers in Endocrinology suggested that the zonulin kits from Immundiagnostik (IDK) ( who supply All the labs that we know that run zonulin) did not detect zonulin (a precursor of Haptoglobin 2). This issue was further confirmed by the kit manufacturer, Immundiagnostik. Because some researchers are conducting studies and have received data from the current zonulin kits, Genova are still offering zonulin but have renamed it Zonulin family peptide. The GI MAP test uses the same process and is also in the same boat.
Celiac Test Markers The Coeliac and Gluten Sensitivity test is a comprehensive profile that uses widely accepted immunologic biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis of Coeliac disease (CD) and gluten sensitivity.
Total IgA
Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase IgA (tTG IgA)
Anti-Deamidated Gliadin IgA (DGP IgA)
Anti-Endomysial IgA (EMA IgA)
Anti-Gliadin IgA (AGA IgA)
Anti-Gliadin IgC (AGA IgC)
One page test summries Tests that include an easy to view 1 page summary of your reslts.
Overall Summary All imbalances are shown here and in the full report.
Commensal Balance A summary of your large intestine microbiome balance
Relative Abundance An easy to view grapical representation of the different major bacteria groups - known as phyla. The test also shows how your bacteia compare to a healthy population.
Dysbiosis Patterns Dysbiosis patterns can be related to key physiologic disruptions, such as immunosuppresion and inflammation. These patterns may represent dysbiotic changes that could pose clinical significance.
Digestive Health extras to add on at check out
Camplylobacter
Clostridium Difficile EIA
Eschercia coli EIA
KOH for Yeast
HpSA - H. pylori - EIA Add on available
Eosinophil Protein X EPX can dramatically increase only under intestinal inflammatory conditions. Causes could be such as IBD, Food Intolerance, Parasites and food related dermatitis.
Calprotectin Well recognised by the NHS Calprotectin is released from the intestinal mucosa into the stool in intestinal inflammation and is a useful marker to help differentiate between IBS ( Irritable bowel syndrom) and IBD (Inflammatory bowel syndrome)
Zonulin / zonulin family peptide Research by Fassano concluded that zonulin acted like a shoe lace to pull the cells of the intestines together. If it was found outside of the reference range it was concluded that it was associated with a leaky gut or intestinal permeability. A recent research paper published in Frontiers in Endocrinology suggested that the zonulin kits from Immundiagnostik (IDK) ( who supply All the labs that we know that run zonulin) did not detect zonulin (a precursor of Haptoglobin 2). This issue was further confirmed by the kit manufacturer, Immundiagnostik. Because some researchers are conducting studies and have received data from the current zonulin kits, Genova are still offering zonulin but have renamed it Zonulin family peptide. The GI MAP test uses the same process and is also in the same boat.
BACTERIA There are many ways we can assess the microbiome - via the breath, PCR - DNA testing, culture - growing in a petri dish and EIA - enzyme Immunoassay and via the break down products from bacteria found in the urine.
Bacteria testing by breath - Hydrogen & Methane The bacteria in the small intestine cannot be measured with a stool or urine test. Breat testing is used to diagnsoe SIBO - small intestine bacterial overgrowth - responsible for up to 60% + cases of IBS. Breat test can also be used to detect lactose, sucrose and fructose intolerance
Bacteria testing by PCR / DNA testing
Commensal Bacteria PCR PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow. Commensal bacteria extract nutrients and energy from our diets, maintain gut barrier function, produce vitamins (biotin and vitamin K), and protect against colonization by potential pathogens.
Bacteriodetes Phylum PCR The microbiome contains tens of trillions of microorganisms, including at least 1,000 different species of known bacteria, the vast majority of which belong to the phyla (group) called Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow.
Bacteroides-Prevotella group
Bactoroides spp.
Bacteroides vulgatus
Barnesiella spp.
Odoribacter spp.
Prevotella
Prevotella copri
Proteus mirabilis
Alistipes spp.
Alistipes onderdonkii
Bacteroides fragilis
Bacteroides stercoris
Bacteroides zoogleoformans
Parabacteroides johnsonii
Parabacteroides spp.
Firmicutes Phylum PCR The microbiome contains tens of trillions of microorganisms, including at least 1,000 different species of known bacteria, the vast majority of which belong to the phyla (group) called Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow.
Anaerotruncus colihominis
Butyrivibrio crossotus
Clostridium (class)
Clostridium spp.
Coprococcus eutactus
Enterococcus spp
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
Lactobacillus spp.
Pseudoflavonifractor spp
Roseburia spp
Ruminococcus spp.
Veillonella spp.
Bacilli Class
Catenibacterium mitsuokai
Clostridium L2-50
Dialister invisus
Dialister invisus & Megasphaera micronuciformis
Dorea spp.
Eubacterium biforme
Eubacterium hallii
Eubacterium rectale
Eubacterium siraeum
Lachnospiraceae
Lactobacillus ruminis & Pediococcus acidilactici
Phascolarctobacterium spp.
Ruminococcus albus & R. bromii
Ruminococcus gnavus
Streptococcus agalactiae & Eubacterium rectale
Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus & S. sanguinis
Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus
Streptococcus spp.
Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes Ratio PCR Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are bacterial phyla ( groups) that dominate the entire human digestive tract, including the mouth, nose, throat, and colon. An abnormal result in one or both of these phylum suggest imbalanced normal microbes in the GI tract. Further, high Firmicutes and low Bacteroidetes (resulting in a high F/B ratio) suggest microbial imbalance which may be related to increased caloric extraction from food, fat deposition and lipogenesis, impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased inflammation.
Actinobacteria Phylum PCR PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow.
Bifidobacterium spp.
Bifidobacterium longum
Collinsella aerofaciens
Actinomycetales
Proteobacteria Phylum PCR PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow
H
Escherichia coli
Escherichia spp.
Oxalobacter formigenes
Enterobacter spp
Euryarchaeota Phylum PCR PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow
Methanobacteriaceae (family)
Methanobrevibacter smithii
Fusobacteria Phylum PCR PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow
Fusobacterium spp.
Verrucomicrobia Phylum PCR PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow
Akkermansia muciniphila
Bacteroidetes
Firmicutes
Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B Ratio)
Tenericutes Phylum PCR PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow
Mycoplasma hominis
Other Dysbiotic and or Overgrowth of Bacteria PCR PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow. This section concentrates on overgrown or imbalanced bacteria.
Bacillus spp.
Enterococcus faecalis
Enterococcus faecium
Morganella spp
Pseudomonas spp
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus spp
Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus spp
Desulfibrio Spp.
Potential Bacterial Autoimmune Triggers PCR PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow. This section concentrates on bacteria that research has shown can be linked to some autoimmune conditions.
Citrobacter spp.
Citrobacter freundii
Fusobacterium spp
Klebsiella spp
Klebsiella pneumoniae
M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis
Enterobacter
Escheriachia spp
Fusobacterium
Proteus spp
Proteus mirabilis
Helicobacter pylori and virulence factors PCR Recent studies have shown that nearly 50% of the world’s population may harbor H. pylori. And, although many carriers\nare asymptomatic, H. pylori is known to have a causative role in ulcers, chronic gastritis, and stomach cancer
PCR Helicobacter pylori Recent studies have shown that nearly 50% of the world’s population may harbor H. pylori. And, although many carriers\nare asymptomatic, H. pylori is known to have a causative role in ulcers, chronic gastritis, and stomach cancer
Virulence Factors, babA, cagA, dupA, iceA, oipA, vacA, virB, virD Of the 50% of the population believed to\nbe infected with H. pylori, only 2% develop gastric cancer. Positive H. pylori virulence factors on the GI-MAP represent the genetic potential for an H. pylori strain to cause pathology. For example, some clinicians may choose an aggressive treatment protocol for a patient with dyspepsia and\na family history of gastrointestinal cancer, who shows elevated H. pylori and positive virulence factors.
Antibiotic resistant Genes re H.Pylori
Bacterial Pathogens PCR This section concentrates on bacteria that are known pathogens. Many food handlers need a clear rrestuls before working with food stuffs. Many of the bactria in thi section are responsible for food poisoning outbreaks. PCR testing is looking at the DNA of bacteria and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbiome. It is superior to culture as lots of bacteria are anaeorbic - die in oxygen -once they leave the body - and are very diffcult to grow.
Campylobacter One of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the U.S.\nInfection is commonly by fecal contamination of poultry and water\nIt may be infectious at very low exposures. Symptoms range from mild to severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, malaise; lasting several days to several weeks
C. difficile , Toxin A The GI-MAP tests only for the genes for toxin A and toxin B, which are carried by C. difficile. The GI-MAP does not measure toxins directly for any microbe.\n2–10% of population are carriers, most are asymptomatic. Prolonged use of antibiotics may be causative factor. Symptoms include inflammation, abdominal pain, cramping,\nfever, and diarrhea
C. difficile, Toxin B The GI-MAP tests only for the genes for toxin A and toxin B, which are carried by C. difficile. The GI-MAP does not measure toxins directly for any microbe.\n2–10% of population are carriers, most are asymptomatic. Prolonged use of antibiotics may be causative factor. Symptoms include inflammation, abdominal pain, cramping,\nfever, and diarrhea
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli Fecal contamination of food (undercooked beef, raw milk, and unpasteurized juice) and water are the commonest sources. Symptoms include fever, abdominal cramping, fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea. Symptoms may last up to a week
E. coli O157 Fecal contamination of food and liquids (dairy, undercooked beef, vegetables, juices are the major source of contamination. It is implicated in many outbreaks and cases of bloody diarrhea and has a high prevalence worldwide. Symptoms may include severe abdominal cramps and diarrhea
Enteroinvasive E. coli/Shigella Symptoms include diarrhea (with blood and/or mucus), vomiting, fever, chills, fatigue, and abdominal cramping
Enterotoxigenic E. coli LT/ST Symptoms include watery, bloody diarrhea
Shiga-like Toxin E. coli stx1
Shiga-like Toxin E. coli stx2
Salmonella Fecal contamination of ingested foods (eggs, poultry, meat, unpasteurized milk, raw fruits, and vegetables) Common sources of infection are exposure to pets (reptiles, amphibians, baby chicks)
Vibrio cholerae Fecal contamination of ingested foods (raw shellfish) and often picked up during international travel
Yersinia enterocolitica Epidemiology - Fecal contamination of ingested foods and liquids (water, undercooked pork, meats, and dairy products)\nClinical Implications\nSymptoms usually develop four to seven days after exposure and are self-limiting\nSymptoms include water or bloody diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain (may resemble appendicitis)
Shigella (S. boydii, S. sonnei, S. flexneri & S. dysenteriae)
Bacteria testing by Cuture A culture means to grow in a petri dish. Although this is now rather old technology compared to the new PCR DNA testing, if a bacteria can be grown, whihc is often difficult, a sensitivity panel can be created to see which pharmaceutical and plant based options can be used to address any imbalances found - avoiding drug resistance leading to better treatment outcomes making this still a valuable part of testing.
Lactobacillus spp ?
Escherichia coli ?
Bifidobacterium ?
Other potentially pathogenic bacteria by culture This part of the test looks to grow bacteria that are potentially pathigenic., Pathogens are organisms which are well-recognized in literature to cause disease regardless of the quantity but an individuals over all health and diogestive picture will have an iompact on how problematic many of these bacteria are.
Bacteria testing by Stool Antigen ?
H.pylori ?
Sensitivity Panels This part of the test checks to see if there is resistance to any commonly used H.Pylori medications. Knowing which drugs are effective makes for better treatment outcomes.
Antibiotic Resistance Genes, phenotypes for PCR testing re H.Pylori This part of the test checks to see if there is resistance to any commonly used H.Pylori medications. Knowing which drugs are effective makes for better treatment outcomes.
Bacterial Sensitivity, prescriptive agents and plant based antimicrobials The sensitivity panel that enables better treatment options as resistant drugs and reistant plant based options can be avoided.
YEAST. Testing by either PCR/DNA, Culture, KOH, urine or Immune Fungal organisms are commonly found in the human digestive tract, but fungal overgrowth can cause illness in susceptible individuals. Fungal growth may be localized in the body. For instance, Candida spp. may be high in the large intestine but normal in the small intestine, and vice versa. In a patient with suspected fungal overgrowth, additional tests may be necessary to understand the complete picture of fungal overgrowth. Urinary D-arabinitol or antibodies to Candida are sometimes used.
Yeast testing by culture Growing yeasts in a petri dish works well with PCR testing as it enables a sensitivity panel to better guide treatment choices by showing which drugs or plant based tratments would work.
Mycology Yeast Candida, geotrichum, rhodotorola can all be picked up by culture.
Yeast Sensitivity, prescriptive agents and plant based antimicrobials The sensitivity panel that enables better treatment options as resistant drugs and reistant plant based options can be avoided.
Yeast testing by Potassium Hydroxide (KOH), Stool prep
Yeast testing by PCR / DNA PCR testing is looking at the DNA of yeasts and is now the gold standard way of testing the microbiome. The test includes candida, geotrichum and Microsporidia. ?
Candida spp. ?
Candida albicans ?
Geotrichum spp. ?
Microsporidium spp. ?
Rodotorula spp. ?
Candida testing via immune antibodies By checking for antibodies to candia you can see whether the immune system is activated agaist a candida overgrowth.
Candida albicans (Candida IgC, IgM & IgA)
BACTERIA AND YEAST. Testing via Urine. Bacteria and yeast metabolites that are present in the urine can indicate bacterial or yeast imbalances or overgrowth.
Bacteria general
Benzoate
Hippurate
Phenylacetate
Phe ylpropionate4
p-Hydroxybenzoate
p-Hydroxyphenylacetate
Indican
Tricarballylate
L. acidophilus / general bacterial
D-Lactate
Clostridial species
3,4-Dih ydroxyphenylpropionat
Yeast / Fungal
D-Arabinitol
PARASITES. Testing via PCR/DNA, O&P/microscope or EIA
Testingfor parasites via O&P microscopic recovery Most nematodes (roundworms), trematodes (flukes), and cestodes (tapeworms) to a lesser degree, are primarily diagnosed by ova in the stool during the microscopic O&P exam.
Worms
Nematodes - Roundworms
Ancylostoma duodenale (Hook worm)
Ancylostoma/Necator Americanus (Hookworm)
Ascaris lumbricoides (Round worm)
Capillaria philippinensis
Enterobius vermicularis
Strongyloides stercoralis
Trichuris trichiura ( Whip worm)
Cestodes - Tapeworms
Diphyllobothrium latum
Dipylidium caninum
Hymenolepis diminuta
Hymenolepis nana
Taenia spp.
Trematodes - Flukes
Clonorchis/Opisthorchis spp. (Liver)
Fasciola spp./Fasciolopsis buski (Large intestine)
Heterophyes/Metagonimus (Small intestine)
Paragonimus spp (Lung)
Schistosoma spp (Blood)
Protozoa
Balantidium coli
Blastocystis hominis A common source of infection is fecal contamination of food or water. It is found worldwide. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, fever, fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, infective arthritis. There are thoiugh to be more aggressive and less problematic subtypes - tested in the PCR GI Effects section.
Chilomastix mesnili
Cryptosporidium spp Epidemiology\nFecal contamination of ingested\nfoods and liquids (contaminated water and swimming pools, undercooked meat, and raw milk). Common cause of traveler’s diarrhea • Clinical Implications\nSymptoms typically last 2–3 weeks and are self-limiting\nIf symptoms persist, look for sources of contamination, such as drinking water
Cyclospora cayetanensis
Cyclospora spp.
Dientamoeba fragilis
Entamoeba coli
Entamoeba histolytica/dispar Epidemiology\n» Fecal contamination of ingested foods or water\n» Pets may be a source of exposure » Sexual contact may be a\nsource of exposure\n• Clinical Implications\n» Symptoms include diarrhea, fulminating colitis (resembling ulcerative colitis), and dysentery
Entamoeba hartmanii
Entamoeba polecki
Endolimax nana Fecal contamination of food or water
Giardia Found in outside water sources (lakes, streams, ponds) and can get past filtration systems. Carried by animals and common in daycare worker. Symptoms include acute diarrhea, bloating, cramps, weight loss, intestinal malabsorption, and steatorrhea (fatty stool)
Iodamoeba buetschlii
Isospora belli
Cystoisospora spp.
Trichomonads (e.g. Pentatrichomonas)
Retortamonas intestinalis
Additional microscopic findings
Red Blood cells indicate blood in the stool. RBCs can be seen with bleeding hemorrhoids or menstrual blood, as well as serious conditions such as malignancy or IBD. If a serious condition is suspected, a follow-up fecal occult blood test or colonoscopy is recommended.
White blood cells White blood cells (WBC) indicate an immune response that can be seen in infectious conditions or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Charcot-Leyden Crystals may be seen under the microscope. This is an eosinophil breakdown product and is present in patients with tissue-invading parasites and allergic conditions.
Pollen
Testing for parasites via PCR DNA testing
Protozoa PCR ?
Blastocystis spp. A common source of infection is fecal contamination of food or water. It is found worldwide. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, fever, fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, infective arthritis. There are thoiugh to be more aggressive and less problematic subtypes - tested in the PCR GI Effects section. ?
Dientamoeba fragilis May cause diarrhea, abdominal\npain, nausea, fever, fatigue, weight loss, appetite loss, and/or fatigue ?
Cryptosporidium spp Caused by fecal contamination of ingested foods and liquids (contaminated water and swimming pools, undercooked meat, and raw milk). It is a common cause of traveler’s diarrhea
Cyclospora cayetanensis Common casue is fecal contamination of food and water. It is associated with water- and food-borne outbreaks. It is a common cause of traveller’s diarrhea. It m may be found on imported fresh produce from tropical regions. ?
Cyclospora spp. Common casue is fecal contamination of food and water. It is associated with water- and food-borne outbreaks. It is a common cause of traveller’s diarrhea. It m may be found on imported fresh produce from tropical regions. ?
Entamoeba histolytica
Chilomastix mesnili ?
Entamoeba coli Caused by fecal contamination of food or water\nFound in the large intestine and considered to be non-pathogenic ?
Endolimax nana Fecal contamination of food or water ?
Pentatrichomonas hominis Considered non pathgenic ?
Giardia Found in outside water sources (lakes, streams, ponds) and can get past filtration systems. Carried by animals and common in daycare worker. Symptoms include acute diarrhea, bloating, cramps, weight loss, intestinal malabsorption, and steatorrhea (fatty stool)
Worms ?
Ancylostoma duodenale ( Hook Worm) ?
Ancylostoma/Necator Americanus (Hookworm) ?
Ascaris lumbricoides ( Round worm) ?
Trichuris trichiura ( whip worm) ?
Taenia spp. ( Tape worm) ?
Testing for parasites with EIA EAI Essay Immuno antigen testing has been recommended by both the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) and the American College of Gastroenterologists (ACG) as the most accurate non-invasive tests for diagnosis and for confirmation of eradication. ?
Cryptosporidium Caused by fecal contamination of ingested foods and liquids (contaminated water and swimming pools, undercooked meat, and raw milk). It is a common cause of traveler’s diarrhea ?
Giardia Lamblia Found in outside water sources (lakes, streams, ponds) and can get past filtration systems. Carried by animals and common in daycare worker. Symptoms include acute diarrhea, bloating, cramps, weight loss, intestinal malabsorption, and steatorrhea (fatty stool) ?
E.Histolytica Caused by fecal contamination of ingested foods or water. Pets may be a source of exposure as may exual contact. ?
VIRUSES. Testing with PCR/DNA
Adenovirus 40/41 Common cause of diarrhea in infants and children but can also affect adults. Mainly transmitted by fecal contamination (fecal-oral route)
Norovirus GI/II Fecal contamination of ingested foods and water. Common cause of stomach flu on cruise ships\nand a common cause of non- bacterial gastroenteritis and outbreaks in the world
Cytomegalovirus CMV Herpes virus that has infected 60% of the US population. Positive CMV on the GI-MAP indicates active infection of the GI, NOT past infection
Rotavirus A Rotavirus is a very contagious virus that causes diarrhea. It's the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and children worldwide
Epstein Barr Virus One of the most common viruses worldwide; infects 90–95% of the population. Positive finding on the GI-MAP indicates active EBV infection of the GI, not past infections
Available Extras available to add on at check out
Campylobacter spp. EIA Add on avilable One of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the U.S. Caused by fecal contamination of poultry and water\nIt may be infectious at very low exposures. Symptoms range from mild to severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, malaise; lasting several days to several weeks
Shiga toxin E.coli EIA add on available Caused by fecal contamination of ingested foods (undercooked meat, unpasteurized milk, juice, and water)\nSymptoms may include severe abdominal cramps and diarrhea
Clostridium difficile EIA 2–10% of population are carriers, most are asymptomatic\nProlonged use of antibiotics may be causative factor\nSymptoms include inflammation, abdominal pain, cramping,\nfever, and diarrhea\nSymptoms often present during antibiotic use and often subside once antibiotics are discontinued\nGastrointestinal (GI) infection can cause reactive arthritis
Macroscopy for Worms
H.Pylori HpSA EIA is a standard methodology for diagnosis of H. pylori. In studies evaluating the HpSA, the HpSA test was 96.1% sensitive, 95.7% specific and showed 95.9% correlation with H.pylori infection.
Zonulin
Histamine
Diamine Oxidase (DAO)
Histamine / DAO Ratio
Please be aware labs do change their test markers from time to time so please double check with us should you need to be sure one of the markers is covered.

Please do not return samples to the laboratories that may arrive after Wednesday 27th March and up to and including Monday 2nd April.

The laboratories are closed from the 28th March – 2nd April for the Easter Holiday.